Exercise and the cytokines-interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha): A review

Exercise and the cytokines, IL-6, TNF-alpha


  • Ambarish Vijayaraghava M. S. Ramaiah Medical College
  • Venkatesh Doreswamy M. S. Ramaiah Medical College




Cytokines, Exercise, Interleukin-6, Tumor necrosis factor-α


Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were one of the first few cytokines to be discovered. The normative data for levels of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha in particular and all other cytokines in general have not yet been established well. The normal levels for each of the cytokines vary from one race to another. Therefore, all studies need to be done in cases and controls belonging to the same race or same populations. The kits for cytokine assays are expensive and running the assays is laborious and time consuming. It is recommended that the serum/plasma samples are run in duplicates and triplicates to avoid error. Immunology and the field of cytokines is an area which has many domains unexplored. As yet, it is not clearly understood by what mechanisms and pathways each of the cytokines alter the levels of other cytokines. Exercise or physical activity is an intervention which can be administered easily and levels of cytokines measured before and after intervention in same individuals taking all the above mentioned factors into consideration. Hence it is imperative that we look into studies on exercise and cytokines to do further research in the field of cytokines.


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Author Biographies

Ambarish Vijayaraghava, M. S. Ramaiah Medical College

Associate Professor, Department of Physiology,
MSRIT Post, Bengaluru-560054,
Karnataka, India.

Venkatesh Doreswamy, M. S. Ramaiah Medical College

Professor, Department of Physiology,
MSRIT Post, Bengaluru-560054,
Karnataka, India.


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How to Cite

Vijayaraghava A, Doreswamy V. Exercise and the cytokines-interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha): A review: Exercise and the cytokines, IL-6, TNF-alpha. Ann Med Physiol [Internet]. 2017Apr.8 [cited 2024Feb.27];1(1):3-8. Available from: https://amphysiol.com/index.php/amp/article/view/v1i1.263485




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