Dyslipidemia is the hallmark of the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women

Dyslipidemia in postmenopausal women

Keywords: Estrogen, Hyperlipidemia, Insulin resistance, Postmenopausal women

Abstract

The incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) increases after menopause and may be due to changes in the plasma lipid-lipoprotein levels that occur following menopausal transition. Physiological estrogen withdrawal during menopause plays a major role in abnormal lipid metabolism that is seen in postmenopausal women, such as elevated low-density lipoprotein concentration. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between dyslipidemia and the causative factors of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, 290 postmenopausal Sudanese women were included. Lipid profiles were measured by spectrophotometer, estrogen hormone determined by ELISA, insulin resistance determined by HOMA-2 calculator and lipid accumulation product was calculated by the following equation (waist circumference in cm X triglyceride concentration in mM). The results revealed that total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein levels and very low-density lipoprotein levels were significantly higher in the postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MS) in comparison to those without the MS. Regarding the prevalence of different components of dyslipidemia seen in participants in this study: elevated total cholesterol levels occur in 51.7 %, elevated triglycerides occurs in 49.7% and elevated low-density lipoprotein levels are seen in 29.3%. Reduced high density lipoprotein levels are seen in 16.89% of the postmenopausal women. Regarding a correlation study: total cholesterol, triglycerides and very low-density lipoprotein values showed a significant positive correlation with insulin resistance and lipid accumulation and a significant negative correlation with the estrogen hormone level. In addition, high density lipoproteins showed a significant negative correlation with lipid accumulation levels.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Asim Alaaeldin Osman, University of Gadarif

Department of Human Physiology

Ahmed Mohamed Fadlalla, International University of Africa

Department of Physiology

References

1. Castelli WP. Cardiovascular disease in women.Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988; 158: 1553-60?
2. Matthews KA, Meilahn E, Kuller LH, etal. Menopause and risk Factors for coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 1989; 321: 641-6.
3. Jensen J, Nilas L, Christiansen C. Influence of menopause on serum lipids and lipoproteins.Maturitas 1990; 12: 321-31.
4. Kuller M, Gutai JP, Metlahn E, etal. Relationship of endogenous sex steroids hormones to lipids and apoproteins in postmenopausal women.Arteriosclerosis 1990; 10:1058-66.
5. Trayhurn P, Beattie JH. Physiological role of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue as an endocrine and secretory organ. Proc Nutr Soc 2001;60:329–39.
6. Eshtiaghi R, Esteghamati A, Nakhjavani M. Menopause is an independent predictor of metabolic syndrome in Iranian women. Maturitas, Volume 65, Issue 3, March 2010, Pages 262–266.
7. Cagnacci A, Cannoletta M, Palma F et al. Menopausal symptoms and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in postmenopause. Climacteric. 2012 Apr;15(2):157-62. doi: 10.3109/13697137.2011.617852.
8. Adams MR, Washburn SA, Wagner JD, et al. Arterial changes.Estrogen deficiency and effects of hormone replacement. In: Lobo RA, ed. Treatment of the Postmenopausal Woman. Raven, New York, 1994,pp.243250.
9. Genest JG Jr. Dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease. Can J Cardiol 2000;16(suppl A):3–4A.
10. G. Boden, B. Lebed, M. Schatz, C. Homko, and S. Lemieux, Effects of acute changes of plasma free fatty acids on intramyocellular fat content and insulin resistance in healthy subjects, Diabetes, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 1612–1617, 2001.
11. Princen BHCMT, Romijn JA, Bisschop PH, et al. Endogenous cholesterol synthesis is associated with VLDL-2 apoB-100 production in healthy humans. J Lipid Res 2003;44:1341–8.
12. Tchernof, A. & Despres, J. P. Pathophysiology of human visceral obesity: an update.Physiol. Rev. 2013; 93, 359–404.
13. Davis CE, Pajak A, Rywik S. Natural menopause and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The Poland and US Collaborative study on cardiovascular disease epidemiology. Annals of Epidemiology 1994; 4(6):445-8.
14. Packard CJ, Demant T, Stewart JP, et al. Apolipoprotein B metabolism and the distribution of VLDL and LDL subfractions. J Lipid Res 2000;41:305–18.
15. Ginsberg HN, Le N-A, Goldberg IJ, et al. Apolipoprotein B metabolism in subjects with deficiency of apolipoproteins C-III and AI: evidence that apolipoprotein C-III inhibits catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by lipoprotein lipase in vivo. J Clin Invest 1986; 78:1287–95.

Published
2020-06-30
How to Cite
1.
Osman A, Fadlalla A. Dyslipidemia is the hallmark of the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Annals of Medical Physiology [Internet]. 30Jun.2020 [cited 14Jul.2020];4(2):18-2. Available from: http://amphysiol.com/index.php/amp/article/view/39
Section
Original Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)