Annals of Medical Physiology <p><strong><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt;">Annals of Medical Physiology</span></strong><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt;"> (<em>Ann Med Physiol.</em>) is a double-blind peer-reviewed quarterly journal, published both online and in print version, aims to provide the most complete and reliable source of information on current developments in the field of medical physiology. The emphasis will be on publishing quality research papers rapidly and keep freely available to researchers worldwide through </span><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt;"><span style="color: #0000ff;">open access policy</span></span><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt;">. <strong>Annals of Medical Physiology</strong> serves an important role by encouraging, fostering and promoting developments in various areas of medical physiology. This journal publishes reviews, original research articles, brief communications in all areas of medical physiology.</span></p> <p><strong><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt;">Features:</span></strong></p> <ul type="disc"> <li style="margin: 0px 0px 8px; color: #000000; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal;"><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt;">International quality</span></li> <li style="margin: 0px 0px 8px; color: #000000; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal;"><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt;">Published quarterly (Jan-Mar, Apr-June, July-Sept, Oct-Dec)</span></li> <li style="margin: 0px 0px 8px; color: #000000; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal;"><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt;">Fast acceptance and quick publication (Online first)</span></li> <li style="margin: 0px 0px 8px; color: #000000; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal;"><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt;">Online manuscript submission</span></li> <li style="margin: 0px 0px 8px; color: #000000; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal;"><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt;">Nominal publication charges</span></li> </ul> Quench Academy of Medical Education and Research (QAMER) Publishing House en-US Annals of Medical Physiology 2456-8422 <p>The authors warrants and represents that the submitted <strong>MANUSCRIPT</strong> is an original work and has not been published before in any form, and that it does not infringe upon any copyright or other right(s), that it does not contain infringing, libelous, obscene or other unlawful matter, that he/she is the sole and exclusive owner of the rights here-in conveyed to the Publisher, and that he/she has obtained the customary permission from the copyright owner or his legal representative whenever a text/passage from copyrighted material is quoted or a table or illustration from such material is used. The Author(s) will indemnify the Publisher for, and hold the Publisher harmless from any loss, expense or damage occasioned by any claim or suit by a third party for copyright infringement or arising out of any breach of the foregoing warranties as a result of publication of the Article. The Article shall be delivered to the Publisher free of copyright charges. In the event that the Article is not accepted and published by Publisher, this agreement becomes null and void.</p> Vitamin D status in medical students and risk factor analysis <p>Vitamin D is finding increasing health implications beyond calcium homeostasis. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent globally including India. Many asymptomatic individuals have hypovitaminosis implicating the need for intervention. The present study aimed at evaluating vitamin D levels among healthy medical students from southern India and its association with well-known risk factors. Hundred apparently healthy medical students between the age group of 18-25 years were recruited based on defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A questionnaire form with details of sun exposure, tanning, milk intake, general health and drug history were obtained. Vitamin D levels were assessed by chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). Vitamin D values were considered normal for 30-60 ng/ml, deficient for &lt;20 ng/ml and insufficient for levels between 21-29 ng/ml. Majority of the students (89%) had deficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels while 8% of the student had insufficient and 3% of the students had sufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 14.01±6.20 ng/ml, median level was 12.95 ng/ml and ranged between 5.15 to 43.01 ng/ml. No statistically significant association was noted with sex, BMI, sun exposure, dietary intake or serum calcium levels. To conclude, vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in asymptomatic medical students and showed lack of relationship with the well-defined risk factors in literature prompting to look for newer risk factors in this country.</p> Vidya Sunil Joshi Rahul Mandal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 2 1 11 16 10.23921/amp.2018v2i1.289803 Immediate and delayed effect of Ramadan fasting on spirometry parameters <p>Fasting in the month of Ramadan is an obligatory duty for muslims. Researchers have investigated health benefits of fasting and reported conflicting results. The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate and delayed effects of Ramadan fasting on spirometric parameters. 50 apparently healthy young adults aged between 17-27 years, belonging to both genders who fast during the month of Ramadan were enrolled for the study. Spirometric recordings were done at three different time points. First: 5-10 days before the start of Ramadan (Pre-Ramadan); second: within 10 days of the beginning of Ramadan fasting (Ramadan); third: within 7 days of the end of Ramadan (Post-Ramadan). There were no statistically significant differences between the three phases with respect to tidal volume (TV), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and forced expiratory flow 25% to 75% (FEF25-27). To conclude, Ramadan fasting does not have any significant effect on pulmonary function tests as assessed by spirometry. Hence, the diagnosis and prognosis of a respiratory disorder made on spirometry findings are reliable and need no error correction if an individual is fasting.</p> Adiba Sayeed Mohammed Abdul Hannan Hazari Mehnaaz Sameera Arifuddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 2 1 7 10 10.23921/amp.2018v2i1.279619 Menarcheal age of blind girls <p>Menarche is a developmental milestone. Age at which menarche is attained is highly variable and highly sensitive to a variety of internal and external forces like climatic conditions, physical and mental factors, nutrition and socio-economic status. Exposure to light and other visual cues may influence the pubertal changes. Menarcheal age (MA) of 110 blind girls was compared to that of 102 normal girls of same age group and of same area of residence. An advancement of 9 months in MA was seen in blind girls. Influence of light and other factors on menarche is discussed.</p> Kalanghot Padmanabhan Skandhan Spandana Reddy Amita Pandya Sumangala Balakrishnan Dayani Osuki Jaya Vasudevan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 2 1 3 6 10.23921/amp.2018v2i1.277584 Target with-in target Mohammed Abdul Hannan Hazari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 2 1 1 2 10.23921/amp.2018v2i1.275951 Prevalence of anemia in geriatric population of Kashmir: A hospital based study <p>Anemia is a common concern in geriatric age group in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to identify the common causes and types of anemia in elderly patients in educationally backward region with limited access to quality health care. This was an observational study was done in Shri Maharaja Hari Singh (SMHS) Hospital of Government Medical College Srinagar, over a period of two years. 2000 patients above 60 years of age attending the outpatient clinic were screened for anemia based on WHO criteria. A random and non-consecutive selection of 100 anemic patients was done to study the morphological type and cause of anemia. 1160 (58%) patients were males and 840 (42%) were females.&nbsp; Total 812 out of 840 (96.67%) females and 738 out of 1160 (63.62%) males were found to be anemic. Maximum numbers of anemic patients were found in the age group 60-69 years. Mean age was 74.5 years. All the types of anemia based on peripheral smear were evident, normocytic being the commonest constituting 77.5%, followed by microcytic hypochromic 11.1%, macrocytic 7.05% and dimorphic 4.35%. 21% were lost to follow up and almost one fourth of the patients (24%) needed further evaluation before labelling them as having anemia due to old age. The common causes of anemia noted were gastrointestinal malignancy (31%), renal insufficiency (15%) and tuberculosis (9%). The inability to evaluate anemia in elderly individuals can lead to delay in the diagnosis of treatable as well as threatening disease conditions.</p> Nazia Hilal Azher Mushtaq ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-04-14 2017-04-14 2 1 26 30 10.23921/amp.2017v1i1.262231 Hematological parameters are acutely effected by cement dust exposure in construction workers <p>Cement dust poses an occupational hazard causing respiratory (owing to its inhalation), dermatological, ocular and hematological problems. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of occupational exposure of cement dust on hematological parameters in construction workers. Apparently healthy sixty five (65) adult male construction workers aged 25-50 years participated in this study. Three (3.0) ml venous blood samples were collected from each participant for hematological analysis at two different time points, one at 8 AM and second at 4 PM at the end of work shift. Differences in means and test of significance were calculated using paired Student’s t-test. The results revealed that post shift samples showed statistically significant increase (p&lt;0.05) in mean total leukocyte count (TLC), lymphocyte %, monocyte % and eosinophil % &nbsp;and statistically significant decrease (p&lt;0.05) in mean hemoglobin, red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume (PCV) and platelet count. The present study confirms that hematological parameters are significantly effected in construction workers which may be attributed to the work atmosphere predominated with cement dust.</p> Ayesha Farheen Mohammed Abdul Hannan Hazari Farisa Khatoon Fareen Sultana Sanam Maria Qudsiya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-04-13 2017-04-13 2 1 31 35 10.23921/amp.2017v1i1.263312 Study of intraocular pressure among individuals working on computer screens for long hours <p>In today’s world computers are ubiquitous and found in different forms which can effect intraocular pressure (IOP). Present study was undertaken to find out effect of day-to-day exposure to computer screen on IOP in normal individuals. 70 individuals (who met the screening conditions and devoid of obvious ocular pathology and systemic diseases) had their IOP’s checked before and 4 hour after computer session on same day, all working in general day shift, involving reading English printed material. The results showed significant (p&lt;0.005) increase with IOP values before exposure being 17.89±3.25 and 16.99±2.84&nbsp;and after exposure being 19.67±3.4 and 18.70±2.4 in left and right eye respectively. Increase in IOP was noted in 70% and 67% individuals in left and right eye.&nbsp;Differences in IOP of right and left eye may be due to dominance of eye or direction of script from left to right.</p> Sanam Maria Qudsiya Farisa Khatoon Aftab Abdul Khader Mohammed Asghar Ali Mohammed Abdul Hannan Hazari Fareen Sultana Ayesha Farheen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-04-11 2017-04-11 2 1 22 25 10.23921/amp.2017v1i1.263328 Exercise and the cytokines-interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α): A review <p>Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were one of the first few cytokines to be discovered. The normative data for levels of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in particular and all other cytokines in general have not yet been established well. The normal levels for each of the cytokines vary from one race to another. Therefore, all studies need to be done in cases and controls belonging to the same race or same populations. The kits for cytokine assays are expensive and running the assays is laborious and time consuming. It is recommended that the serum/plasma samples are run in duplicates and triplicates to avoid error. Immunology and the field of cytokines is an area which has many domains unexplored. As yet, it is not clearly understood by what mechanisms and pathways each of the cytokines alter the levels of other cytokines. Exercise or physical activity is an intervention which can be administered easily and levels of cytokines measured before and after intervention in same individuals taking all the above mentioned factors into consideration. Hence it is imperative that we look into studies on exercise and cytokines to do further research in the field of cytokines.</p> Ambarish Vijayaraghava Venkatesh Doreswamy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-04-08 2017-04-08 2 1 3 8 10.23921/amp.2017v1i1.263485 Central blood pressure parameters in young adults with and without parental history of hypertension <p>Hypertension is increasingly being found in children and adolescence. The purpose of this study was to find out differences in the central arterial (aortic) blood pressure parameters in young adults with hypertensive and normotensive parents. 109 healthy volunteers between the ages of 17 and 25 years were enrolled for the study after taking consent. Brachial artery pressures and aortic parameters were recorded using PeriScope™ which determines aortic parameters and functional vascular age non-invasively based on oscillometric method. The results of this study showed no statistically significant difference between offspring of hypertensive parents and offspring of normotensive parents.</p> Mohammed Abdul Hannan Hazari Mehnaaz Sameera Arifuddin Hamza Zoeb Hussain Farah Fatima Nudrath Kahkashan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-31 2017-03-31 2 1 16 21 10.23921/amp.2017v1i1.262334 Slow breathing has unequal effects on prehypertensives from different ethnic/racial groups <p>In this study, we investigated whether slow breathing reduces blood pressure (BP) in individuals at risk of developing hypertension and if slow breathing has the same effect on Caucasian, African, Arabian and Indian subjects. Also we assessed ethnic/racial differences in low frequency (LF) power and high frequency (HF) power of heart rate variability (HRV). A total of 40 Caucasian men from Ukraine, 39 West African men mostly from Nigeria, 38 Arabic men from Palestine and Israel and 41 South Asian men from India studying at V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University were recruited in this study. The subjects were further classified into normotensive and prehypertensive groups. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), LF power, HF power of HRV were recorded at spontaneous breathing and at paced breathing of 10 and 6 breaths per minute. It was found that slowing respiratory rate to 6 breaths per minute reduces SBP in prehypertensive Caucasians, Arabs, Indians, but not in Africans. At 6 breaths per minute, natural logarithm of HF (LnHF) power indicating cardiovagal activity was less in normotensive Arabs than in Caucasians, Africans and Indians possibly suggesting an increased risk of developing hypertension; while prehypertensive Africans demonstrated LnHF power higher than Arabs and Indians. When covariates like age and body mass index (BMI) were considered, prehypertensive Africans demonstrated LnHF power higher than in Caucasians also. It is suggested that in prehypertensive Africans the control of autonomic nervous activity is reset to a higher level of parasympathetic outflow.</p> Vera Evgenievna Shekh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-28 2017-03-28 2 1 9 15 10.23921/amp.2017v1i1.260846