Annals of Medical Physiology <p><strong><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt;">Annals of Medical Physiology</span></strong><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt;"> (<em>Ann Med Physiol.</em>) is a double-blind peer-reviewed quarterly journal, published both online and in print version, aims to provide the most complete and reliable source of information on current developments in the field of medical physiology. The emphasis will be on publishing quality research papers rapidly and keep freely available to researchers worldwide through </span><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt;"><span style="color: #0000ff;">open access policy</span></span><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt;">. <strong>Annals of Medical Physiology</strong> serves an important role by encouraging, fostering and promoting developments in various areas of medical physiology. This journal publishes reviews, original research articles, brief communications in all areas of medical physiology.</span></p> <p><strong><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt;">Features:</span></strong></p> <ul type="disc"> <li class="show" style="margin: 0px 0px 8px; color: #000000; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal;"><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt;">International quality</span></li> <li class="show" style="margin: 0px 0px 8px; color: #000000; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal;"><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt;">Published quarterly (Jan-Mar, Apr-June, July-Sept, Oct-Dec)</span></li> <li class="show" style="margin: 0px 0px 8px; color: #000000; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal;"><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt;">Fast acceptance and quick publication (Online first)</span></li> <li class="show" style="margin: 0px 0px 8px; color: #000000; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal;"><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt;">Online manuscript submission</span></li> <li class="show" style="margin: 0px 0px 8px; color: #000000; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal;"><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt;">Nominal publication charges</span></li> </ul> Quench Academy of Medical Education and Research (QAMER) Publishing House en-US Annals of Medical Physiology 2456-8422 <p>The authors warrants and represents that the submitted <strong>MANUSCRIPT</strong> is an original work and has not been published before in any form, and that it does not infringe upon any copyright or other right(s), that it does not contain infringing, libelous, obscene or other unlawful matter, that he/she is the sole and exclusive owner of the rights here-in conveyed to the Publisher, and that he/she has obtained the customary permission from the copyright owner or his legal representative whenever a text/passage from copyrighted material is quoted or a table or illustration from such material is used. The Author(s) will indemnify the Publisher for, and hold the Publisher harmless from any loss, expense or damage occasioned by any claim or suit by a third party for copyright infringement or arising out of any breach of the foregoing warranties as a result of publication of the Article. The Article shall be delivered to the Publisher free of copyright charges. In the event that the Article is not accepted and published by Publisher, this agreement becomes null and void.</p> Effects of cigarette smoking on erythrocyte sedimentation rate, platelet count, total and differential leucocyte counts in adult male smokers <p>Smoking is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Smokers have higher risk for coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, acute myocardial infarction, hypertension, clotting disorders, inflammation, respiratory diseases, cancers, etc. A cigarette smoker is exposed to a number of harmful substances. In this study we hypothesized that smoking causes inflammatory reactions and induces hyperthrombic state in the body which may be reflected in erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), total leucocyte count (TLC), differential leucocyte count (DLC) and platelet count values. The purpose of the study was to study the effects of cigarette smoking on erythrocyte sedimentation rate, total leucocyte count and platelet count in adult male smokers and to compare the results with non-smokers and to establish a relationship between the duration and quantity of smoking with the change in ESR, TLC, DLC and platelet count. A cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Pathology on 86 healthy male subjects (smokers=43 and non-smokers=43). ESR was estimated using Westergrens method. TLC, DLC and platelet counts were estimated using HORIBA Pentra ES60 autoanalyser. TLC and basophil counts were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers (p&lt;0.05). The mean value of ESR was higher among smokers than non-smokers but it was statistically insignificant. Platelets counts showed no significant difference between smokers and non- smokers. No correlation was observed in various blood parameters and smoking (in pack years). We conclude that smoking initiates an inflammatory response as evidenced from raised TLC, monocyte and basophil counts.</p> Safia Sultana Nabila Afsar Mohammed Jawad Mohammed Abdul Hannan Hazari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 3 1 14 18 10.23921/amp.2019v3i1.35185 Failing immune surveillance in humans: Repercussion of modern day lifestyles Mohammed Abdul Hannan Hazari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-27 2019-03-27 3 1 1 2 10.23921/amp.2019v3i1.38529 Electrocardiographic changes in patients with pre-eclampsia <p>Pre-eclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy that is associated with elevated maternal risk for cardiovascular disease. Electrocardiographic (ECG) changes in pre-eclampsia have been documented in some studies. Electrocardiography has recently emerged as a useful tool to evaluate cardiovascular complication during and after pregnancy. The present study was therefore undertaken to find out electrocardiographic changes in pre-eclamptic women, visiting Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Manipur. The aim of this study was to determine the electrocardiographic changes in both pre-eclampsia and age matched normotensive pregnant women. In this study, 25 pregnant women (gestational age &gt;20 weeks) with pre-eclampsia in the range of 18 to 45 years of age were recruited and compared with the equal number of age matched normotensive pregnant women. ECG parameters of pre-eclamptic women were compared with those of normotensive pregnant women. The data were then analyzed using SPSS software. Pre-eclamptic women showed significantly longer QRS (0.10±0.02 sec vs 0.09±0.05 sec), prolonged QT (0.401±0.03 sec vs 0.365±0.003sec) and QTc (457.73±37 msec vs 416.47± 25.4 msec) than control group. The study shows that electrocardiography can be used to evaluate cardiovascular risk in pre-eclamptic women.</p> Bidyarani Loukrakpam Laishram Geetanjali O. Puinabati Luikham Sanjoy K. Shylla ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-22 2019-03-22 3 1 10 13 10.23921/amp.2019v3i1.26774 Functional features of neutrophils in subclinical hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid status <p>Neutrophil or polymorphonuclear leukocytes are critical to host defense. They act by migrating (chemotaxis) to site of inflammation or infection, phagocytoze the microorganisms to form phagosome. Reactive Oxygen species and hydrolytic enzymes are released (respiratory burst activity) into this phagosome to kill ingested microorganisms (microbicidal activity). Thyroid hormones are essential for proper differentiation, growth and metabolism of an organism. Increasing evidence indicates that thyroid hormones also play an active role in immunity. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with normal thyroid hormone levels with increased thyroid stimulating hormone level. While studies indicate elevated TSH to have some effects on immune functions, there is very little evidence regarding its effect on functional features of neutrophils. In this cross-sectional comparative study, we evaluated the phagocytic, chemotactic, candidacidal, and respiratory burst activity of neutrophils in subclinical hypothyroid and euthyroid subjects. Phagocytosis and metabolic function of the neutrophils was assessed using Nitro-blue tetrazolium test. Chemotaxis, directional movement of the PMNs was measured using the N-Formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine as chemoattractant. Phagocytic activity was evaluated by exposing leukocytes to candida suspension and counting the number of candida ingested and killed. Microbicidal activity of neutrophils was assessed by the ability of leukocytes to kill Candida albicans in both subclinical hypothyroid and euthyroid subjects. Our study demonstrated that chemotactic and mean phagocytic activity was significantly less in those with subclinical hypothyroidism as compared to euthyroid control group (p value= 0.005 and 0.045 respectively). Respiratory burst activities of both unstimulated &amp; stimulated neutrophils were relatively reduced in subclinical hypothyroidism (p value of 0.08 and 0.07). Candidicidal activity was similar in both groups. We conclude that subclinical hypothyroid individuals having excess of thyroid stimulating hormones are associated altered functional characteristics of neutrophils.</p> Bindu Mohan Komaladevi Sampath Damodar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-16 2019-02-16 3 1 3 9 10.23921/amp.2019v3i1.19251 Blood group reckoning: Unraveling the mystery of blood group antigens Mehnaaz Sameera Arifuddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 3 1 33 35 10.23921/amp.2018v2i4.23002 Assessment of psychomotor skills using finger pulse guided biofeedback tool in young medical students <p>Psychomotor skills are the organized patterns of muscular activities guided by signals from the environment. These skills can be influenced by factors like age, gender, built of an individual and handedness. It’s a known fact that the dominant hand has more dexterity; nevertheless, proficiency of the non-dominant hand can be improved with repetition of tasks and procedures. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of biofeedback mechanism on psychomotor skills performance and gender variation in their activity. Eighty participants aged between 20-30 years were recruited after taking the informed consent. All the subjects performed number countdown test and 100 pin dexterity test. Tests were done by fixing the subject’s heart beats instead of stipulated time which was picked up by finger Pulse plethysmography using optocoupler principle. The results were compared between the males and age-matched female participants. The pin dexterity scores with a right and left hands in males (57.2±8.1, 42.16±7.3) were significantly higher than females (48.41±8.4, 37.58±6.8) (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in number countdown test scores. The results suggest that males handle a skilled performance better than females. This is perhaps males were less anxious as the task was designed in such way that it has to be completed by counting down the heart beats. In that way, the males got more time duration as the heart rate did not shoot up when the task was assigned.</p> Chintala Kiran Kumar A. V. Siva Kumar Pullaganti Madhurima K. N. Maruthy Gurja John Preetham ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 3 1 36 39 10.23921/amp.2018v2i4.21991 Variation in carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, augmentation pressure and augmentation index during different phases of menstrual cycle <p>Physiological variation of estrogen and progesterone during menstrual cycle is well known.&nbsp; They not only have an effect on blood pressure control, but also seem to have a role in regulating arterial compliance. This study was done to find out whether there are any changes in central arterial parameters during different phases of menstrual cycle. Thirty female&nbsp; subjects&nbsp; in the&nbsp; age&nbsp; group&nbsp; of&nbsp; 18-22&nbsp; years&nbsp; with&nbsp; normal,&nbsp; regular menstrual&nbsp; cycles&nbsp; participated in this prospective observational study at our teaching hospital. Anthropometric parameters were recorded.&nbsp; Blood pressure in all 4 limbs was recorded using cardiovascular risk analyzer-Periscope™ on Day 3<sup>rd</sup> to 5<sup>th</sup> (follicular phase), Day 12<sup>th</sup> to 14<sup>th</sup> (ovulation phase), Day 22<sup>nd</sup> to 24<sup>th</sup> (luteal phase) of their menstrual cycle. We collected blood samples during these three phases for estimation of estradiol and progesterone by ELISA technique. Analysis of variance and correlation statistics were done using SPSS 17.0 statistical software. No significant statistical changes were observed in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, aortic systolic pressure, aortic diastolic pressure, aortic augmentation pressure, aortic index and pulse wave velocity during the three recorded phases of the menstrual cycle. There are many studies which correlate changes in peripheral artery blood pressure with different phases of menstrual cycle. But there is scarcity in data available which correlates central arterial pressures and arterial stiffness with natural hormonal variations in different phases of menstrual cycle. However, our results show that although there are subtle changes in blood pressure parameters along with estrogen and progesterone levels throughout the menstrual cycle, yet these were not statistically significant.</p> Nudrat Kahkashan Mehnaaz Sameera Arifuddin Mohammed Abdul Hannan Hazari Safia Sultana Farah Fatima Syyeda Anees ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-28 2018-11-28 3 1 27 32 10.23921/amp.2018v2i3.10454 Hemorheology: Capturing the fluid dynamics of blood Mohammed Abdul Hannan Hazari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-28 2018-11-28 3 1 25 26 10.23921/amp.2018v2i3.15965 A comparative study on ABO blood group and fertility hormones in infertile women in Calabar, Southern Nigeria <p>Infertility, a disorder of the reproductive system, is commonly linked to hormonal, pituitary, cervical, uterine, immunological or psychological factors. Besides these factors, it can also be idiopathic or unexplained. Hence, there is a need for more research to unravel the causes of the unexplained infertility. This work aimed at finding out whether there is any relationship between ABO blood group system and female infertility. The study design was cross-sectional. Three hundred women between 18 and 40 years attending fertility clinic at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar between 2011 and 2012 were recruited for this study. Serum progesterone, prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol were determined using Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while ABO blood grouping was determined using the tube method. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 18. The confidence level was set at 95% where p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean age of the women was 30.65 ± 5.47 years and the percentage distributions of the blood groups among the women were as follows: 24% A, 12% B, 4% AB and 60% O. The mean FSH levels of blood groups A and O individuals were significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) than that of groups B. However, there was no significant difference (p&gt;0.05) in the mean levels of progesterone, prolactin, LH and estradiol in the respective groups. From this study, 38% of the population had increased levels of progesterone, 58% and 18.7% had elevated prolactin and FSH levels respectively while 11.33% and 43.3% had reduced levels of LH and estradiol levels respectively. Though, there was high prevalence of hyperprolactinemia observed in this study, there was no strong association between ABO blood group and female infertility but, the increased FSH levels observed in blood groups A and O may be a potential link between blood group and infertility and therefore may be beneficial for further study.</p> Uwem Okon Akpan Iya Eze Bassey Nnenna Nkiruka Nwatu Sunday Jeremiah Offor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-01 2018-07-01 3 1 19 24 10.23921/amp.2018v2i2.298656 Nanophysiology: Real-time phenomenal perspective in biology Mohammed Abdul Hannan Hazari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-01 2018-07-01 3 1 17 18 10.23921/amp.2018v2i2.302175