Relationship between obesity, physical activity, sleeping hours and red blood cell parameters in adult Sudanese population

Effect of exercise and sleep hours on RBC parameters

  • Kamal Mohammad Awad University of Gadarif
  • Asim Alaaeldin Osman University of Gadarif
  • Amir Ali Bashir University of Elimam Elmahdi
  • Abdelmuhsin Hussien Mohamed University of Gadarif
  • Abdarahim Alborai Abeadalla Omdurman Islamic University
  • Ibrahim Abdelrhim Ali Omdurman Islamic University
  • Elmutaz Hussien Taha University of Dongola
  • Omer Abdel Aziz Musa National Ribat University
Keywords: Exercise, Obesity, Sleep, Sudan


Ideal body weight with proper physical activity and good sleep are essential parameters for good quality of life. This study is concerned with assessing the association of general obesity, physical activity and sleeping hours with hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and red blood cell (RBC) parameters in healthy adults in Sudan. In this cross sectional study, 1086 healthy adults between 20 and 60 years were included out of which 275 were males and 811 were females. A complete blood count (CBC) was performed for Hb, RBC count, PCV, MCH and MCHC using Sysmex KX-21 automated hematology analyzer. The median and 95 percentile (2.5th to 97.5th) range values for Hb and RBC count in underweight were 13.0 (Range: 9.6-16.7) g/dl and 4.6 (Range: 3.6-5.8) ×103/µL respectively, while Hb and RBC count in obese were 13.1 (Range: 10.4-17.0) g/dl and 4.6 (Range: 3.7-5.9) ×103/µL respectively, with no significant difference. The RBC count (p=0.004) and Hb (p≤0.001) were significantly high in physically active compared to physically inactive participants; whereas the hemoglobin concentration (p=0.047), red blood cells (p=0.007) and hematocrit (p≤0.001) values were significantly low in long-term sleep compared to normal sleeping hours. In conclusion, there were no significant differences in hemoglobin concentration, RBC count, PCV, MCH and MCHC between unde weight, normal weight, overweight and obese persons. Increased physical activity was associated with higher Hb levels and RBC counts, while long-term sleep showed lower Hb and RBCs.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Kamal Mohammad Awad, University of Gadarif

Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medicine

Asim Alaaeldin Osman, University of Gadarif

Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medicine

Amir Ali Bashir, University of Elimam Elmahdi

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine

Abdelmuhsin Hussien Mohamed, University of Gadarif

Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medicine

Abdarahim Alborai Abeadalla, Omdurman Islamic University

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine

Ibrahim Abdelrhim Ali, Omdurman Islamic University

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine

Elmutaz Hussien Taha, University of Dongola

Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medicine

Omer Abdel Aziz Musa, National Ribat University

Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medicine


  1. Yanoff LB, Menzie CM, Denkinger B, Sebring NG, T McHugh T, Remaley AT, Yanovski. JA. Inflammation and iron deficiency in the hypoferremia of obesity. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Sep; 31(9):1412-9. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  2. Chen SB, Lee YC, Ser KH, Chen JC, Chen SC, Hsieh HF, Lee WJ. Serum C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in morbidly obese surgical patients. Obes Surg. 2009 Apr; 19(4):461-6. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  3. Ausk KJ, Ioannou GN. Is obesity associated with anemia of chronic disease? A population-based study. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008 Oct; 16(10): 2356-61. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  4. Qin Y, Melse-Boonstra A, Pan X, Yuan B, Dai Y, Zhao J, Zimmermann MB, Kok FJ, Zhou M, Shi Z. Anemia in relation to body mass index and waist circumference among Chinese women. Nutr J. 2013 Jan 11; 12:10. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  5. Cepeda-Lopez AC, Osendarp SJ, Melse-Boonstra A, Aeberli I, Gonzalez-Salazar F, Feskens E, Villalpando S, Zimmermann MB. Sharply higher rates of iron deficiency in obese Mexican women and children are predicted by obesity-related inflammation rather than by differences in dietary iron intake. Am J ClinNutr. 2011 May; 93(5): 975-83. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  6. Bhatti R, Shaikh DM. The effect of exercise on blood parameters. Pak J Physiol. 2007 Dec 31; 3(2).

  7. Convertino VA. Blood volume response to physical activity and inactivity. Am J Med Sci. 2007 Jul; 334(1):72-9. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  8. Sawka MN, Convertino VA, Eichner ER, Schnieder SM, Young AJ. Blood volume: importance and adaptations to exercise training, environmental stresses, and trauma/sickness. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000 Feb; 32(2):332-48. [Pubmed]

  9. Schmidt W, Prommer N. Impact of alterations in total hemoglobin mass on VO2max. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2010 Apr; 38(2):68-75. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  10. Convertino VA. Blood volume: its adaptation to endurance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991 Dec; 23(12):1338-48. [Pubmed]

  11. Bezci Ş, Kaya Y. The analyze of hematological parameters of elite women taekwondoers before and after training. Pamukkale J Sport Sci. 2010; 1(2):1-16.

  12. Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 2005.

  13. Consensus Conference Panel, Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D, Dinges DF, Gangwisch J, Grandner MA, Kushida C, Malhotra RK, Martin JL, Patel SR, Quan SF, Tasali E. Joint Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: Methodology and discussion. Sleep. 2015 Aug; 38(8):1161-83. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  14. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Sleep Medicine and Research; Colten HR, Altevogt BM, eds. Sleep disorders and sleep deprivation: An unmet public health problem. Washington (DC): National Academies Press; 2006. [Pubmed]

  15. Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D, Dinges DF, Gangwisch J, Grandner MA, Kushida C, Malhotra RK, Martin JL, Patel SR, Quan SF, Tasali E. Recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: A joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society. Sleep. 2015 Jun; 38(6):843-4. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  16. Semba RD, Ricks MO, Ferrucci L, Xue QL, Guralnik JM, Fried LP. Low serum selenium is associated with anemia among older adults in the United States. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jan; 63(1): 93-9. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  17. Ghadiri-Anari A, Nazemian N, Vahedian-Ardakani HA. Association of body mass index with hemoglobin concentration and iron parameters in Iranian population. ISRN Hematol. 2014 Feb; 2014:525312. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  18. Acharya S, Patnaik M, Mishra SP, Panigrahi AK. Correlation of hemoglobin versus body mass index and body fat in young adult female medical students. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2018 Oct; 8(10):1371-3. [Crossref]

  19. Zakai NA, Katz R, Hirsch C, Shlipak MG, Chaves PH, Newman AB, Cushman M. A prospective study of anemia status, hemoglobin concentration, and mortality in an elderly cohort: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Oct; 165(19): 2214-20. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  20. Choi CW, Lee J, Park KH, Yoon SY, Choi IK, Oh SC, Seo JH, Kim YH, Kim JS. Prevalence and characteristics of anemia in the elderly: cross-sectional study of three urban Korean population samples. Am J Hematol. 2004 Sep; 77 (1): 26-30. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  21. Gallagher PM, Carrithers JA, Godard MP, Schulze KE, Trappe SW. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate ingestion, part II: effects on hematology, hepatic and renal function. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000 Dec; 32(12): 2116-9. [Pubmed]

  22. Sazvar A, Mohammadi M, Nazem F, Farahpour N. The effect of morning aerobic exercise on some hematological parameters in young, active males. Iranian Journal of Health and Physical activity. 2013; 4(1):23-8.

  23. Cengiz ŞŞ, Çinar V. The effect of 8-week core exercises on some hematological parameters in sedentary females. Turkish J Sci Res. 2014; 1(1): 1-5

  24. Mashiko T, Umeda T, Nakaji S, Sugawara K. Effects of exercise on the physical condition of college rugby players during summer training camp. Br J Sports Med. 2004 Apr; 38(2):186-90. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  25. Yeh SH, Chuang H, Lin LW, Hsiao CY, Eng HL. Regular tai chi chuan exercise enhances functional mobility and CD4CD25 regulatory T cells. Br J Sports Med. 2006 Mar; 40(3):239-43. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  26. Senturk UK, Yalcin O, Gunduz F, Kuru O, Meiselman HJ, Baskurt OK. Effect of antioxidant vitamin treatment on the time course of hematological and hemorheological alterations after an exhausting exercise episode in human subjects. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005 Apr; 98(4):1272-9. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  27. Fujitsuka S, Koike Y, Isozaki A, Nomura Y. Effect of 12 weeks of strenuous physical training on hematological changes. Mil Med. 2005 Jul; 170(7):590-4. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  28. Schmidt W, Prommer N. Effects of various training modalities on blood volume. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2008 Aug; 18 Suppl 1:57-69. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  29. Meyer KA, Wall MM, Larson NI, Laska MN, Neumark-Sztainer D. Sleep duration and body mass index in a sample of young adults. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Jun; 20(6): 1279-87. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  30. Peltzer K, Pengpid S. Sleep duration, sleep quality, body mass index, and waist circumference among young adults from 24 low- and middle-income and two high-income countries. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 May; 14(6):E566. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  31. Chaput JP, Després JP, Bouchard C, Tremblay A. The association between sleep duration and weight gain in adults: a 6-year prospective study from the Quebec Family Study. Sleep. 2008 Apr; 31(4):517-23. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  32. Taheri S, Lin L, Austin D, Young T, Mignot E. Short sleep duration is associated with reduced leptin, elevated ghrelin and increased body mass index. PLoS Med. 2004 Dec; 1(3):e62. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  33. Taheri S. The link between short sleep duration and obesity: we should recommend more sleep to prevent obesity. Arch Dis Child. 2006 Nov; 91(11):881-4. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  34. Johann AF, Hertenstein E, Kyle SD, Baglioni C, Feige B, Nissen C, McGinness AJ, Riemann D, Spiegelhalder K. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with longer duration of insomnia in the Freiburg Insomnia Cohort compared to insomnia with normal sleep duration, but not with hypertension. PLoS One. 2017 Jul 26; 12(7): e0180339. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  35. Jackowska M, Kumari M, Steptoe A. Sleep and biomarkers in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing: associations with C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and hemoglobin. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013 Sep; 38(9):1484-93. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  36. Murat S, Ali U, Serdal K, Süleyman D, İlknur P, Mehmet S, Bahattin A, Tunahan U. Assessment of subjective sleep quality in iron deficiency anaemia. Afr Health Sci. 2015 Jun; 15(2): 621-7. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

  37. Meier-Ewert HK, Ridker PM, Rifai N, Regan MM, Price NJ, Dinges DF, Mullington JM. Effect of sleep loss on C-reactive protein, an inflammatory marker of cardiovascular risk. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Feb 18; 43(4):678-83. [Pubmed] [Crossref]

Figure 4
How to Cite
Awad K, Osman A, Bashir A, Mohamed A, Abeadalla A, Ali I, Taha E, Musa O. Relationship between obesity, physical activity, sleeping hours and red blood cell parameters in adult Sudanese population. Annals of Medical Physiology [Internet]. 28Jun.2019 [cited 14Jul.2020];3(2):21-6. Available from:
Original Research Articles

Plum X metrics

Article level metrics are shown here

Most read articles by the same author(s)